（1）一般疑问句：如果直接引语是一般疑问句，变为间接引语时，谓语动词是say或said时，要改为 ask 或asked,原问句变为由if/whether 引导的宾语从句。
例:“Do you think a diary can become your friend?” the writer says.
→ The writer asks us if we think a diary can become our friend.
例：“What do you want?” he asked me.
→ He asked me what I wanted
Unit2 English around the world
1. because of 因为、由于
2. come up 走近、上来、提出
3. actually 实际上、事实上
4. base 以…为基础，根基
5. at present 目前
6. make use of 利用
7. such as 例如
8. command 命令、指令、掌握
9. request 请求、要求
10. play a part/role in 扮演一个角色
11. recognize 辨认出、承认、公认
12. straight 直接、挺直、笔直的
13. be different from 与…不同
be the same as 和…一样
14. one another 相互，彼此（=each other）
15. at the end of 在…结束时
16. because of 因为（后接名词或名词性短语）
17. be based on 根据，依据
18. at present 目前；当今
19. especially 特别，尤其
20. make use of 利用…
make the best of 充分利用…
21. a large number of 大量的，很多（作主语时，谓语动词用复数）
the number of …的数量（作主语时，谓语动词用单数）
22. in fact = actually= as a matter of fact 事实上
23. make lists of… 列清单
24. included 包括（前面接包括的对象）
25. command sb. to do sth. 命令某人去做某事
command + that 从句（从句用should+V原）
26. request sb. to do sth. 要求某人做某事
request + that 从句(从句用should+V原)
1. World Englishes come from those countries where English plays an important role as a first or second language, either because of foreign rule or because of its special role as an international language.（定语从句）
2. All languages change when cultures communicate with one another.
3. Actually, the English spoken between about AD 450 and 1150 was based more on German than present day English.
4. Would you please come up to my flat for a visit?
5. Believe it or not, he cheated in the exams.
6. Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English.
7. Today the number of people learning English in China is larger than even before.
8. It is the duty of a government to provide education for the children of its country. （it作形式主语）
9. Reading is one of the best ways of improving your vocabulary and usage.
10. Giving commands is less polite than making a request.
11. We asked her for directions and she told us to go round the corner on the left and keep going straight for two blocks.
12. He knows several languages, such as English, French and German.
例：The hostess said to us, “Please sit down.”
→ The hostess asked us to sit down.
He said, “Don’t make so much noise, boys.”
→ He told the boys not to make so much noise.
Unit3 Travel journal
2. prefer A to B 比起B，更喜欢A
prefer doing to doing 比起做…，宁愿做…
prefer to do rather than do 与其做…, 不如…
3. flow through 流过，流经
4. ever since 自从
5. persuade sb. to do sth. 说服某人做某事
6. be fond of 喜欢
7. insist on doing 坚持做某事
insist + that 从句（用should+ V原）
8. care about 关心
9. change one’s mind 改变想法
10. altitude 高度
11. make up one’s mind to do下定决心做某事
= decide to do = make a decision to do
12. give in 让步，屈服
give up 放弃
13. be surprised to… 对…感到惊奇
to one’s surprise 令某人惊讶的是…
14. at last = finally = in the end 最终
15. stop to do 停下来去做某事
stop doing 停止做某事
16. as usual 像往常一样
17. so…that 如此…以至于…
so + adj + a/an + n. + that
such + a/an +adj. + n. + that
18. be familiar with 对…熟悉（人作主语）
be familiar to 为…所熟悉（物作主语）
1. My sister and I have dreamed about cycling along the Mekong River from where it begins to where it ends. 我姐姐和我一直梦想要沿湄公河从源头到终点骑车旅行。
2. The man insisted that he didn’t steal anything and he (should) be set free at once. (陈述语气、虚拟语气)
3. She gave me a determined look ?C the kind that said she wouldn’t change her mind.
4. He is so stubborn that no one can persuade him to do anything.
5. My sister doesn’t care about details.
6. She is a determined woman. Once she determines to do something, she will do it well.
7. He recorded the important events ad his afterthoughts in his travel journal. 在旅行日记中，他记下了重大的事件及自己的想法。
8. I am not familiar with this city, because this is my first visit.
9. I don’t think it is necessary for us to give in.
10. The topics of a travel journal can be different from a diary, often including people, things, and events less familiar to readers.
11. It was great fun to put up tents here.
① 瞬时动词的进行时在任何情况下都表示将来含义。这些动词包括go , come , leave，arrive , return等。
I am leaving.
I am leaving tomorrow.
An American professor is giving a lecture this afternoon.
An American professor is giving a lecture.
1. right away 立刻，马上（= at once = in no time）
2. asleep 睡着的；熟睡地（fall asleep 入睡）
3. it seems that/as if… 看来好像…；似乎
4. in ruins 成为废墟
5. the number of …的数量（做主语时，谓语动词用单数）
a number of 大量（做主语时，谓语动词用复数）
6. rescue workers 营救人员
come to one’s rescue 营救某人
7. be trapped 被困
8. how long 多长时间
how often 多久一次，指频率
how soon 还要多久（用于将来时当中，用in+时间段回答）
9. hundreds of thousands of 成千上万的
10. dig out 挖出
例：She felt the earth shaking under him.
She was shaken with anger.
The building quaked on its foundation.
例：Suddenly I saw her lips begin to tremble and tears begin to flow down her cheeks.
例：A sudden gust of cold wind made me shiver.
12. rise (rose—risen)---- vi, 上升；升起， 无被动语态
give rise to 引起
raise（raised—raised）---- vt, 举起；筹集；养育
arise ( arose—arisen)----vt, 出现（常指问题或现象）
13. injure---- 常指因意外事故造成的损伤，也可以指感情上名誉上的伤害
例：He was injured in a car accident.
例：He was afraid that his fury(暴怒) would harm the child.
His business was harmed for some reason.
例：She hurt her leg when she fell.
He felt hurt at your word.
例：The bullet wounded him in the arm.
14. be prepared for …= make preparations for… 为…做准备
15. in one’s honor 向…表示敬意；为纪念
be/feel honored to do… 做…感到很荣幸
16. make /give/deliver a speech 发言
opening speech 开幕词
17. give/ provide shelter to… 向…提供庇护所
seek shelter from… 躲避
18. happen to do sth. 偶然；碰巧
1. The number of people who were killed or injured in the earthquake reached more than 400,000.（定语从句）
2. The army organized the rescue workers to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead. （定语从句）
3. All hope was not lost. = Not all hope was lost.（部分否定）
4. None of us were allowed to go there.（全部否定）
5. He rescued the man from drowning.
6. An earthquake left the whole city in ruins.
7. I feel highly honoured by your trust.
8. Professor Yu organized his thoughts before giving the speech.
9. Many people took shelter from the rain in the department store.
10. It seemed that the world was at an end as the earthquake destroyed nearly everything.
11. People began to wonder how long the disaster would last.
12. They used candles all the time instead of electricity.
13. The one million people of the city, who thought little of these strange events, went to bed as usual that night.（非限制性定语从句）
14. We’d better prepare him for the bad news.
15. The rubbish gave out a smelly gas.
16. I am getting in touch with him right away.
17. Are you willing to do public service work without pay?
18. Do you easily lose heart when you are in trouble?
例：1）A plane is a machine that can fly. (指物，作主语)
2）The noodles (that) I cooked were delicious. (指物，作宾语，可省略)
3）Who is the man that is reading a book over there? (指人，作主语)
4）The girl (that) we saw yesterday was Jim’s sister,(指人，作宾语，可省略)
例：1）They planted some trees which didn’t need much water. (作主语)
2）The fish (which) we bought this morning were not fresh. (作宾语，可省略)
例：1）The foreigner who helped us yesterday is from USA.(作主语)
2）The person to whom you just talked to is Mr. Li. (作宾语，可省略)
例：1）This is the scientist whose name is known all over the world. (指人，作主语)
2） The room whose window faces south is mine. (指物，作主语)
3）He has written a book whose name I’ve forgotten. (指物，作宾语)
例：1）I’ll never forget the time when (=during which) we worked on the farm.
2) Do you remember the afternoon when (=on which) we first met three years ago?
例：1）This is the place where( =at/in which) we first met.
2) The hotel where (= in which ) we stayed wasn’t very clean.
例: 1). I didn’t get a pay rise, but this wasn’t the reason why(= for which) I left.
2). The reason why (=for which) he has late was that he missed the train.
Unit5 Nelson Mandela – a modern hero
1. selfish 自私的
2. devote oneself to… 致力于；献身于
3. fight against 对抗，反对
fight for 为…而战
4. principle 原则
5. offer guidance to… 给…提供指导
6. out of work 失业
7. join 加入（组织，俱乐部，成为其中一员）
join in 参加（活动）
take part in 参加（活动）
8. as + adj +as one can 尽可能…
= as + adj. +as possible
9. as a matter of fact 事实上（=in fact）
10. blow up 爆炸，炸掉
11. set up 建立；set about 着手，开始做（ set about doing sth.）；set off 出发，动身 ; set out 开始，出发（set out to do sth.）
12. be sentenced to 被判…
13. be equal to 与…相等；胜任
14. be proud of 为…感到自豪
15. give out 分发
give off 散发出（气味）
16. die for 为…而死
die of 死于（自身原因，如疾病）
die from 死于（外在原因，如车祸）
17. realize one’s dream of … 实现..的梦想
18. only 位于句首时，要主谓部分倒装
例：Only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.
Only in this way, can we protect the environment better.
1. The time when I first met him was a very difficult period of my life.
2. It is a doctor’s job to advise patients on health problems.
3. As a matter of fact, I was worried about whether I would be out of work.
4. After getting up, he always drinks a glass of water, which he believes is good for his health. （非限制性定语从句）
5. The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all. （定语从句）
6. In his life, he has always tried to help those who are less fortunate than himself. （定语从句）
7. Only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.（倒装句）
8. Only some of the children seemed to have understood it.
9. The school where I studied only two years was three kilometers away.
10. The parts of town where they lived were places decided by white people.（过去分词作后置定语）
11. Before he came to power, he was once put in prison for years.
12. This was my reward after working all my life for equal rights for the Blacks.
13. He was sentenced to three years in prison for stealing.
14. He set up a black law firm to help those poor black people.
15. In 1963, I helped him blow up some government buildings.
16. My family could not continue to pay my school fee.
17. He taught us during the lunch breaks and the evenings when we should have been asleep.（虚拟语气）